More recently, ERT was used as part of an experiment set up in a mature tropical forest in eastern Amazonia to demonstrate greater depletion of soil water in the 11—18 m depth increment of a throughfall exclusion plot compared with a control in the experiment Davidson et al. These authors used a soil water content measure obtained with a TDR probe to convert soil apparent electrical resistivity values to soil water contents.
Despite its sensitivity to soil characteristics, which can affect its performance, ERT is an effective means to obtain, non-destructive, indirect information about root functioning at considerable soil depths. Soil moisture measurements , assessing soil moisture changes over time, represent an indirect way to detect signs of root activity namely water uptake. For example, based on soil moisture measurements, Calder et al.
Based on an analysis of water balance changes in a crop sequence with lucerne, Dunin et al.
Although the literature does not include, by far, as many references on deep roots as it does on shallow roots, the available information has clearly demonstrated that deep roots are common and of pivotal importance for plant functioning, subterranean biocenosis and many biogeochemical cycles and associated ecosystem services such as pedogenesis, soil carbon sequestration and moisture regulation in the lower troposphere. Because no methodologies exist today to characterize the entire RSA of mature plants at once, particularly not for large-sized organisms such as trees, the methods presented in this review need to be improved further.
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Jean-Luc Maeght would like to thank Dylan Fischer for his recommendation of studies on using minirhizotrons in the field and his contribution to this section of the manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Journal List Front Plant Sci v. Front Plant Sci. Published online Aug Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received May 21; Accepted Jul The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The drivers underlying the development of deep root systems, whether genetic or environmental, are poorly understood but evidence has accumulated that deep rooting could be a more widespread and important trait among plants than commonly anticipated from their share of root biomass.
Keywords: deep roots, biogeochemical and ecological functions, root measure. The challenge of defining deep roots and measuring rooting depths Factors that drive root growth and root system expansion are known from a diversity of field and laboratory observations. Physical, bio-chemical, and ecological functions of deep roots While it is impossible to attribute most traits and functions exclusively to shallow or deep roots, some distinctions can be made in their specialization and their impact on the environment. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. The role of deep roots in water uptake and redistribution Water uptake is one of the key functions of deep root systems, especially in the driest and rockiest environments.
Deep roots and nutrient uptake RSA, i. Physical—chemical weathering by deep roots Growing roots tend to follow pores, channels and preferentially explore soil less dense than the bulk soil Moran et al. Influence of rooting depth on C biogeochemistry Despite their low carbon C content, subsoil horizons contribute to more than half of the total soil C stocks, and therefore need to be considered in the global C cycle Harrison et al. Impact of deep roots on soil fauna and microbial communities Fauna diversity was described as declining from the shallow toward the deep subterranean habitats Culver and Pipan, , however it is still widely unknown how deep roots influence the vertical distribution of soil fauna.
Figure 2. Figure 6. Table 1 Main advantages and disadvantages of direct i. Root samples can be analysed further e. Possibility to take root and soil samples and to install MR tubes and other measurement gear Difficulty to establish deep trenches without reinforcements. Limited time of usability. Easy to replicate in stone-free soils. Minor plot disturbance Requires a large number of samples. Moderate destructive and labor intensive rinsing. Logistically difficult if machine drilled Minirhizotrons Average 5—8 Continuous, vertical information fine root length density, root dynamics.
Relatively easy to replicate in stone-free soils. Time lag before first measurement. Expensive imaging equipment.
Moderate plot disturbance and very labor intensive. Logistically difficult for enforcement delivery Mines and caves Not controllable Can provide cost-efficient access to the greatest depth. Replication not controllable. Often difficult to enter. Description of key benefits is based on one replicate per method. Excavation, trenches, and coring approaches Despite advances in root studies in the last five decades, the most common methods used to obtain data on root distribution and structure have not changed substantially: excavation and coring techniques are still and by far the preferred methods.
Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Caves and mines Deep roots of trees and shrubs are regularly found in caves and mine shafts Cannon, , cited after Stone and Kalisz, ; Stone, Indirect approaches for the observation deep roots Quite a few indirect approaches have been used to study and quantify the role of deep roots in plant species and on the environment; while this is outside the focus of this review we will give an overview on some of them in the following. Conclusion and outlook Although the literature does not include, by far, as many references on deep roots as it does on shallow roots, the available information has clearly demonstrated that deep roots are common and of pivotal importance for plant functioning, subterranean biocenosis and many biogeochemical cycles and associated ecosystem services such as pedogenesis, soil carbon sequestration and moisture regulation in the lower troposphere.
Conflict of interest statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Acknowledgments Jean-Luc Maeght would like to thank Dylan Fischer for his recommendation of studies on using minirhizotrons in the field and his contribution to this section of the manuscript. References Abbott M. A review: radiotracer methods to determine root distribution.
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How to study deep roots—and why it matters
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An Updated Approach
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Recent advances in the visualization and measurement of roots have resulted in significant progress in our understanding of root architecture, growth and behaviour.
In this book international experts highlight the most advanced techniques, both lab and field methods, and discuss them in detail. Measuring Roots combines academic and practical aspects of this topic, making it a universal handbook for all researchers and others interested in root-measuring methods. Read more Find a copy online Links to this item doi. Allow this favorite library to be seen by others Keep this favorite library private. Find a copy in the library Finding libraries that hold this item Combining both academic and practical components, this book covers recent progress in visualization and measurement of roots, which has significantly advanced our understanding of the architecture and behaviour of the hidden half of plants.
Reviews Editorial reviews. Publisher Synopsis From the reviews:"This book describes some remarkable methods, mostly of recent development, by which roots can be rendered more accessible, and measurable, than normally allowed by nature. User-contributed reviews Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers. Be the first. Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers.
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